Below is a YouTube link of our Co-Founder demonstrating the HRC – Hyper Battery Charging Technology at the Global Entrepreneur Summit and IGEM, an International Green Technology Conference in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

In essence the HRC - technology is 213.5% more efficient than the traditional battery charger currently available on the market.

The video showcases a 2 minute recharge at 1800 ma with absolutely no increase in heat to a 9v 150mAh battery in a fully discharged state. This battery normally takes 14 hours at 15 ma to recharge from a fully discharged state from a standard off the shelf, wall plug-in battery charger.

PLEASE NOTE: During traditional charging HEAT occurs and is the biggest enemy to Battery Cell Plates, which in turn creates degradation and lessens the life of the batteries performance over all. (Have you noticed when you purchase a Laptop and within 8 months your battery life has lost its ability to keep a longer charge as when you first used it?)

COMPETITIVE EDGE: HRC during the charging process re-juvenates the cell plates within the battery, creating a longer and stronger battery cell plates after each charging session.

The Video showcases our Technology, but more importantly the principles of the ‘Science’ behind the HRC.



Our Technology has been regarded and labeled as a major game changer within the battery technology industry. The uniqueness of the HRC is that we are able wrap our Technology around all battery types and bring added value to current Battery Technologies and other innovative technologies currently in the market.

Current Technology Tie ups:
Electric Engine Technologies - Longer Range, less charge ups and over all longer battery life. Kinetic Energy Technologies - 100% Sustainable Vehicle. Drones: longer flight time without liquid fuel making them lighter.

Solnovation is currently seeking candidates in their respected fields: Silicon Physicists, Bio-Electronic Engineers, Dimensional & Particle Physicists. All enquiries pertaining to Collaboration, Research Assistance & Investor Relations please email our Dynamic Scientific team at: info@solnovation.com


History - Production in the United States - Recent Developments – Characteristics - Voltage Over Charging -
Lithium and lithium-ion batteries - Electrochemistry - 20th Century: new Technologies and Ubiquity - Common Alkaline Batteries - Nickel-hydrogen and nickel metal-hydride - Lithium and lithium-ion batteries - Early electric experiments and birth of the term - Early 19th Century: invention of the battery -Late 19th Century Rechargeable and dry cells

The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes. The abbreviation Ni-Cd is derived from the chemical symbols of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd): the abbreviation NiCad is a registered trademark of SAFT Corporation, although this brand name is commonly used to describe all Ni–Cd batteries.

Wet-cell nickel-cadmium batteries were invented in 1898. A Ni-Cd battery has a terminal voltage during discharge of around 1.2 volts which decreases little until nearly the end of discharge. Ni-Cd batteries are made in a wide range of sizes and capacities, from portable sealed types interchangeable with carbon-zinc dry cells, to large ventilated cells used for standby power and motive power. Compared with other types of rechargeable cells they offer good cycle life and capacity, good performance at low temperatures, and work well at high discharge rates (using the cell capacity in one hour or less). However, the materials are more costly than types such as the lead acid battery, and the cells have higher self-discharge rates than some other types. Sealed Ni-Cd batteries require no maintenance.

Sealed Ni-Cd cells were at one time widely used in portable power tools, photography equipment, flashlights, emergency lighting, hobby R/C, and portable electronic devices. The superior capacity of the Nickel-metal hydride batteries, and more recently their lower cost, has largely supplanted their use. Further, the environmental impact of the disposal of the heavy metal cadmium has contributed considerably to the reduction in their use. Within the European Union, they can now only be supplied for replacement purposes although they can be supplied for certain specified types of new equipment such as medical devices.

Larger ventilated wet cell NiCd batteries are used in emergency lighting, standby power, and uninterruptible power supplies and other applications.

History The first Ni–Cd battery was created by WaldemarJungner of Sweden in 1899. At that time, the only direct competitor was the lead–acid battery, which was less physically and chemically robust. With minor improvements to the first prototypes, energy density rapidly increased to about half of that of primary batteries, and significantly greater than lead–acid batteries.Jungner experimented with substituting iron for the cadmium in varying quantities, but found the iron formulations to be wanting. Jungner's work was largely unknown in the United States. Thomas Edison patented a nickel– or cobalt–cadmium battery in 1902, and adapted the battery design when he introduced the nickel–iron battery to the US two years after Jungner had built one. In 1906, Jungner established a factory close to Oskarshamn, Sweden to produce flooded design Ni–Cd batteries.

Disassembled Ni–Cd battery from cordless drill.

1: outer metal casing (also negative terminal)     2: separator (between electrodes)    3: positive electrode
4: negative electrode with current collector (metal grid, connected to metal casing). Everything is rolled. Construction is very similar to a nickel–metal hydride cell


Ni–Cd battery of a PSA PeugeotCitroën electric vehicle, Museum Autovisionwe, Altlußheim, Germany The RazakSAT used Ni–Cd batteries

Production in the United States The first production in the United States began in 1946. Up to this point, the batteries were "pocket type," constructed of nickel-plated steel pockets containing nickel and cadmium active materials. Around the middle of the twentieth century, sintered-plate Ni–Cd batteries became increasingly popular. Fusing nickel powder at a temperature well below its melting point using high pressures creates sintered plates. The plates thus formed are highly porous, about 80 percent by volume. Positive and negative plates are produced by soaking the nickel plates in nickel- and cadmium-active materials, respectively. Sintered plates are usually much thinner than the pocket type, resulting in greater surface area per volume and higher currents. In general, the greater amount of reactive material surface area in a battery, the lower its internal resistance.

Recent developments In the past few decades, Ni–Cd batteries have had internal resistance as low as alkaline batteries. Today, all consumer Ni–Cd batteries use the "swiss roll" or "jelly-roll" configuration. This design incorporates several layers of positive and negative material rolled into a cylindrical shape. This design reduces internal resistance as there is a greater amount of electrode in contact with the active material in each cell.

Characteristics The maximum discharge rate for a Ni–Cd battery varies by size. For a common AA-size cell, the maximum discharge rate is approximately 18 amps; for a D size battery the discharge rate can be as high as 35 amps.[citation needed]

Model-aircraft or -boat builders often take much larger currents of up to a hundred amps or so from specially constructed Ni–Cd batteries, which are used to drive main motors. 5–6 minutes of model operation is easily achievable from quite small batteries, so a reasonably high power-to-weight figure is achieved, comparable to internal combustion motors, though of lesser duration. In this, however, they have been largely superseded by lithium polymer (Lipo) and lithium iron phosphate (LiFe) batteries, which can provide even higher energy densities.

Voltage Ni–Cd cells have a nominal cell potential of 1.2 volts (V). This is lower than the 1.5 V of alkaline and zinc–carbon primary cells, and consequently they are not appropriate as a replacement in all applications. However, the 1.5 V of a primary alkaline cell refers to its initial, rather than average, voltage. Unlike alkaline and zinc–carbon primary cells, a Ni–Cd cell's terminal voltage only changes a little as it discharges. Because many electronic devices are designed to work with primary cells that may discharge to as low as 0.90 to 1.0 V per cell, the relatively steady 1.2 V of a Ni–Cd cell is enough to allow operation. Some would consider the near-constant voltage a drawback as it makes it difficult to detect when the battery charge is low.

Ni–Cd batteries used to replace 9 V batteries usually only have six cells, for a terminal voltage of 7.2 volts. While most pocket radios will operate satisfactorily at this voltage, some manufacturers such as Varta made 8.4 volt batteries with seven cells for more critical applications.

12 V Ni–Cd batteries are made up of 10 cells connected in series.

Charging Ni–Cd batteries can be charged at several different rates, depending on how the cell was manufactured. The charge rate is measured based on the percentage of the amp-hour capacity the battery is fed as a steady current over the duration of the charge. Regardless of the charge speed, more energy must be supplied to the battery than its actual capacity, to account for energy loss during charging, with faster charges being more efficient. For example, an "overnight" charge, might consist of supplying a current equals to one tenth the amperehour rating (C/10) for 14–16 hours; that is, a 100 mAh battery takes 10mA for 14 hours, for a total of 140 mAh to charge at this rate. At the rapid-charge rate, done at 100% of the rated capacity of the battery in 1 hour (1C), the battery holds roughly 80% of the charge, so a 100 mAh battery takes 120 mAh to charge (that is, approximately 1 hour and fifteen minutes). Some specialized batteries can be charged in as little as 10–15 minutes at a 4C or 6C charge rate, but this is very uncommon. It also exponentially increases the risk of the cells overheating and venting due to an internal overpressure condition: the cell's rate of temperature rise is governed by its internal resistance and the square of the charging rate. At a 4C rate, the amount of heat generated in the cell is sixteen times higher than the heat at the 1C rate. The downside to faster charging is the higher risk of overcharging, which can damage the battery. and the increased temperatures the cell has to endure (which potentially shortens its life).

The safe temperature range when in use is between −20°C and 45°C. During charging, the battery temperature typically stays low, around 0°C (the charging reaction absorbs heat), but as the battery nears full charge the temperature will rise to 45–50°C. Some battery chargers detect this temperature increase to cut off charging and prevent over-charging.

When not under load or charge, a Ni–Cd battery will self-discharge approximately 10% per month at 20°C, ranging up to 20% per month at higher temperatures. It is possible to perform a trickle charge at current levels just high enough to offset this discharge rate; to keep a battery fully charged. However, if the battery is going to be stored unused for a long period of time, it should be discharged down to at most 40% of capacity (some manufacturers recommend fully discharging and even short-circuiting once fully discharged[citation needed]), and stored in a cool, dry environment.

Overcharging Sealed Ni–Cd cells consist of a pressure vessel that is supposed to contain any generation of oxygen and hydrogen gases until they can recombine back to water. Such generation typically occurs during rapid charge and discharge and exceedingly at overcharge condition. If the pressure exceeds the limit of the safety valve, water in the form of gas is lost. Since the vessel is designed to contain an exact amount of electrolyte this loss will rapidly affect the capacity of the cell and its ability to receive and deliver current. To detect all conditions of overcharge demands great sophistication from the charging circuit and a cheap charger will eventually damage even the best quality cells.



Electrochemistry A fully charged Ni–Cd cell contains:
  • A nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide positive electrode plate
  • A cadmium negative electrode plate
  • A separator, and
  • Analkalineelectrolyte (potassium hydroxide).


Ni–Cd batteries usually have a metal case with a sealing plate equipped with a self-sealing safety valve. The positive and negative electrode plates, isolated from each other by the separator, are rolled in a spiral shape inside the case. This is known as the jelly-roll design and allows a Ni–Cd cell to deliver a much higher maximum current than an equivalent size alkaline cell. Alkaline cells have a bobbin construction where the cell casing is filled with electrolyte and contains a graphite rod which acts as the positive electrode. As a relatively small area of the electrode is in contact with the electrolyte (as opposed to the jelly-roll design), the internal resistance for an equivalent sized alkaline cell is higher which limits the maximum current that can be delivered.

The chemical reactions during discharge are:
at the cadmium electrode, and
at the nickel electrode. The net reaction during discharge is
During recharge, the reactions go from right to left. The alkaline electrolyte (commonly KOH) is not consumed in this reaction and therefore its specific gravity, unlike in lead–acid batteries, is not a guide to its state of charge.

When Jungner built the first Ni–Cd batteries, he used nickel oxide in the positive electrode, and iron and cadmium materials in the negative. It was not until later that pure cadmium metal and nickel hydroxide were used. Until about 1960, the chemical reaction was not completely understood. There were several speculations as to the reaction products. The debate was finally resolved by infrared spectroscopy, which revealed cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide.

Another historically important variation on the basic Ni–Cd cell is the addition of lithium hydroxide to the potassium hydroxide electrolyte. This was believed to prolong the service life by making the cell more resistant to electrical abuse. The Ni–Cd battery in its modern form is extremely resistant to electrical abuse anyway, so this practice has been discontinued.

20th century: new technologies and ubiquity Nickel-iron Jungner had invented a nickel-iron battery the same year as his Ni-Cad battery, but found it to be inferior to its cadmium counterpart and, as a consequence, never bothered patenting it. It produced a lot more hydrogen gas when being charged, meaning it could not be sealed, and the charging process was less efficient (it was, however, cheaper). However, Thomas Edison picked up Jugner's nickel-iron battery design, patented it himself and sold it in 1903. Edison wanted to commercialise a more lightweight and durable substitute for the lead-acid battery that powered some early automobiles, and hoped that by doing so electric cars would become the standard, with his firm as its main battery vendor. However, customers found his first model to be prone to leakage and short battery life, and it did not outperform the lead-acid cell by much either. Although Edison was able to produce a more reliable and powerful model seven years later, by this time the inexpensive and reliable Model T Ford had made gasoline engine cars the standard. Nevertheless, Edison's battery achieved great success in other applications such as providing backup power for railroad crossing signals, or to provide power for the lamps used in mines.

Common alkaline batteries Until the late 1950s the zinc-carbon battery continued to be a popular primary cell battery, but its relatively low battery life hampered sales. In 1955, an engineer working for Union Carbide at the National Carbon Company Parma Research Laboratory named Lewis Urry was tasked with finding a way to extend the life of zinc-carbon batteries, but Urry decided instead that alkaline batteries held more promise. Until then, longer-lasting alkaline batteries were unfeasibly expensive. Urry's battery consisted of a manganese dioxide cathode and a powdered zinc anode with an alkaline electrolyte. Using powdered zinc gave the anode a greater surface area. These batteries hit the market in 1959.

Nickel-hydrogen and nickel metal-hydride The nickel hydrogen battery entered the market as an energy-storage subsystem for commercial communication satellites.

The first consumer grade nickel–metal hydride batteries (NiMH) for smaller applications appeared on the market in 1989 as a variation of the 1970s nickel hydrogen battery. NIMH batteries tend to have longer lifespans than NiCd batteries (and their lifespans continue to increase as manufacturers experiment with new alloys) and, since cadmium is toxic, NiMH batteries are less damaging to the environment.

Lithium and lithium-ion batteries Lithium is the metal with lowest density and with the greatest electrochemical potential and energy-to-weight ratio, so in theory it would be an ideal material with which to make batteries. Experimentation with lithium batteries began in 1912 under G.N. Lewis, and in the 1970s the first lithium batteries were sold.

Three important developments marked the 1980s. In 1980 an American chemist John B. Goodenough disclosed the LiCoO2 cathode (positive lead) and a French research scientist RachidYazami discovered the graphite anode (negative lead). This led a research team managed by Akira Yoshino of Asahi Chemical, Japan to build the first lithium ion battery prototype in 1985, a rechargeable and more stable version of the lithium battery; followed by Sony that commercialized the lithium ion battery in 1991.

In 1997, the lithium ion polymer battery was released. These batteries hold their electrolyte in a solid polymer composite instead of a liquid solvent, and the electrodes and separators are laminated to each other. The latter difference allows the battery to be encased in a flexible wrapping instead of a rigid metal casing, which means such batteries can be specifically shaped to fit a particular device. They also have a higher energy density than normal lithium ion batteries. These advantages have made it a choice battery for portable electronics such as mobile phones and personal digital assistants, as they allow for more flexible and compact design.

 


A battery of linked glass capacitors (Leyden jars)
Early electric experiments and birth of the term
In 1749 Benjamin Franklin, the U.S. polymath and founding father, first used the term "battery" to describe a set of linked capacitors he used for his experiments with electricity. These capacitors were panels of glass coated with metal on each surface. These capacitors were charged with a static generator and discharged by touching metal to their electrode. Linking them together in a "battery" gave a stronger discharge.

Early 19th century: invention of the battery Invention of the voltaic pile The trough battery, which was in essence a Voltaic Pile laid down to prevent electrolyte leakage

In 1780, Luigi Galvani was dissecting a frog affixed to a brass hook. When he touched its leg with his iron scalpel, the leg twitched. Galvani believed the energy that drove this contraction came from the leg itself, and called it "animal electricity".

However, Alessandro Volta, a friend and fellow scientist, disagreed, believing this phenomenon was caused by two different metals joined together by a moist intermediary. He verified this hypothesis through experiment, and published the results in 1791. In 1800, Volta invented the first true battery, which came to be known as the voltaic pile. The voltaic pile consisted of pairs of copper and zinc discs piled on top of each other, separated by a layer of cloth or cardboard soaked in brine (i.e., the electrolyte). Unlike the Leyden jar, the voltaic pile produced a continuous and stable current, and lost little charge over time when not in use, though his early models could not produce a voltage strong enough to produce sparks. He experimented with various metals and found that zinc and silver gave the best results.

Volta believed the current was the result of two different materials simply touching each other—an obsolete scientific theory known as contact tension—and not the result of chemical reactions. As a consequence, he regarded the corrosion of the zinc plates as an unrelated flaw that could perhaps be fixed by changing the materials somehow. However, no scientist ever succeeded in preventing this corrosion. In fact, it was observed that the corrosion was faster when a higher current was drawn. This suggested that the corrosion was actually integral to the battery's ability to produce a current. This, in part, led to the rejection of Volta's contact tension theory in favor of electrochemical theory. Volta's illustrations of his Crown of Cups and voltaic pile have extra metal disks, now known to be unnecessary, on both the top and bottom. The figure associated with this section, of the zinc-copper voltaic pile, has the modern design, an indication that "contact tension" is not the source of electromotive force for the voltaic pile.

Volta's original pile models had some technical flaws, one of them involving the electrolyte leaking and causing short-circuits due to the weight of the discs compressing the brine-soaked cloth. An Englishman named William Cruickshank solved this problem by laying the elements in a box instead of piling them in a stack. This was known as the trough battery. Volta himself invented a variant that consisted of a chain of cups filled with a salt solution, linked together by metallic arcs dipped into the liquid. This was known as the Crown of Cups. These arcs were made of two different metals (e.g., zinc and copper) soldered together. This model also proved to be more efficient than his original piles, though it did not prove as popular.

A zinc-copper voltaic pile Another problem with Volta's batteries was short battery life (an hour's worth at best) which was caused by two phenomena. The first was that the current produced electrolysed the electrolyte solution, resulting in a film of hydrogen bubbles forming on the copper, which steadily increased the internal resistance of the battery (This effect, called polarization, is counteracted in modern cells by additional measures). The other was a phenomenon called local action, wherein minute short-circuits would form around impurities in the zinc, causing the zinc to degrade. The latter problem was solved in 1835 by William Sturgeon, who found that amalgamated zinc, whose surface had been treated with some mercury, didn't suffer from local action.

Despite its flaws, Volta's batteries provided a steadier current than Leyden jars, and made possible many new experiments and discoveries, such as the first electrolysis of water by Anthony Carlisle and William Nicholson.

Daniell cell Schematic representation of Daniell's original cell

A British chemist named John Frederic Daniell searched for a way to eliminate the hydrogen bubble problem found in the Voltaic Pile, and his solution was to use a second electrolyte to consume the hydrogen produced by the first. In 1836, he invented the Daniell cell, which consisted of a copper pot filled with a copper sulphate solution, in which was immersed an unglazed earthenware container filled with sulphuric acid and a zinc electrode. The earthenware barrier was porous, which allowed ions to pass through but kept the solutions from mixing. Without this barrier, when no current was drawn the copper ions would drift to the zinc anode and undergo reduction without producing a current, which would destroy the battery's life.

Over time, copper buildup would block the pores in the earthenware barrier and cut short the battery's life. Nevertheless, the Daniell cell provided a longer and more reliable current than the Voltaic cell because the electrolyte deposited copper (a conductor) rather than hydrogen (an insulator) on the cathode. It was also safer and less corrosive. It had an operating voltage of roughly 1.1 volts. It saw widespread use in telegraph networks until it was supplanted by the Leclanché cell in the late 1860s.

Poggendorff cell The German scientist Johann Christian Poggendorff overcame the problems with separating the electrolyte and the depolariser using a porous earthenware pot. In the Poggendorff cell, the electrolyte was dilute sulphuric acid and the depolariser was chromic acid. The two acids were physically mixed together eliminating the porous pot. The positive electrode (cathode) was two carbon plates, with a zinc plate (negative or anode) positioned between them. Because of the tendency of the acid mixture to react with the zinc, a mechanism was provided to raise the zinc electrode clear of the acids.

The cell provided 1.9 volts. It proved popular with experimenters for many years due to its relatively high voltage; greater ability to produce a consistent current and lack of any fumes, but the relative fragility of its thin glass enclosure and the necessity of having to raise the zinc plate when the cell was not in use eventually saw it fall out of favour. The cell was also known as the 'chromic acid cell', but principally as the 'bichromate cell'. This latter name came from the practice of producing the chromic acid by adding sulphuric acid to potassium bichromate (the old name for potassium dichromate), even though the cell itself contained no bichromate.

The Fuller cell was developed from the Poggendorff cell. Although the chemistry was principally the same, the two acids were once again separated by a porous container and the zinc was treated with mercury to form an amalgam. This substantially reduced the 'local action' which was mainly responsible for the consumption of the zinc, but the presence of the porous pot reintroduced many of the problems that the Poggendorff cell had solved. The practice of treating zinc with mercury survived well into the 20th century until environmental considerations forced its abandonment.

Grove cell
The Grove cell was invented by William Robert Grove in 1844. It consisted of a zinc anode dipped in sulfuric acid and a platinumcathode dipped in nitric acid, separated by porous earthenware. The Grove cell provided a high current and nearly twice the voltage of the Daniell cell, which made it the favoured cell of the American telegraph networks for a time. However, it gave off poisonous nitric oxide fumes when operated. The voltage also dropped sharply as the charge diminished, which became a liability as telegraph networks grew more complex. Platinum was also very expensive. The Grove cell was replaced by the cheaper, safer and better performing gravity cell in the 1860s.

Late 19th century: rechargeable batteries and dry cells Lead-acid, the first rechargeable battery 19th-century illustration of Planté's original lead-acid cell

Up to this point, all existing batteries would be permanently drained when all their chemical reactions were spent. In 1859, Gaston Planté invented the lead-acid battery, the first-ever battery that could be recharged by passing a reverse current through it. A lead acid cell consists of a lead anode and a lead dioxide cathode immersed in sulphuric acid. Both electrodes react with the acid to produce lead sulfate, but the reaction at the lead anode releases electrons whilst the reaction at the lead dioxide consumes them, thus producing a current. These chemical reactions can be reversed by passing a reverse current through the battery, thereby recharging it.

Planté's first model consisted of two lead sheets separated by rubber strips and rolled into a spiral. His batteries were first used to power the lights in train carriages while stopped at a station. In 1881, Camille Alphonse Faure invented an improved version that consisted of a lead grid lattice into which a lead oxide paste was pressed, forming a plate. Multiple plates could be stacked for greater performance. This design was easier to mass-produce.

Compared to other batteries, Planté's was rather heavy and bulky for the amount of energy it could hold. However, it could produce remarkably large currents in surges. It also had very low internal resistance, meaning that a single battery could be used to power multiple circuits.

The lead-acid battery is still used today in automobiles and other applications where weight is not a big factor. The basic principle has not changed since 1859, though in the 1970s a variant was developed that used a gel electrolyte instead of a liquid (commonly known as a "gel cell"), allowing the battery to be used in different positions without failure or leakage.

Today cells are classified as "primary" if they produce a current only until their chemical reactants are exhausted, and "secondary" if the chemical reactions can be reversed by recharging the cell. The lead-acid cell was the first "secondary" cell.

Gravity Cell A 1919 illustration of a gravity cell. This particular variant is also known as a crowfoot cell due to distinctive shape of the electrodes

Sometime during the 1860s, a Frenchman by the name of Callaud invented a variant of the Daniell cell called the gravity cell. This simpler version dispensed with the porous barrier. This reduced the internal resistance of the system and, thus, the battery yielded a stronger current. It quickly became the battery of choice for the American and British telegraph networks, and was used until the 1950s. In the telegraph industry, this battery was often assembled on site by the telegraph workers themselves, and when it ran down it could be renewed by replacing the consumed components.

The gravity cell consisted of a glass jar, in which a copper cathode sat on the bottom and a zinc anode was suspended beneath the rim. Copper sulfate crystals would be scattered around the cathode and then the jar would be filled with distilled water. As the current was drawn, a layer of zinc sulfate solution would form at the top around the anode. This top layer was kept separate from the bottom copper sulfate layer by its lower density and by the polarity of the cell.

The zinc sulfate layer was clear in contrast to the deep blue copper sulfate layer, which allowed a technician to measure the battery life with a glance. On the other hand, this setup meant the battery could be used only in a stationary appliance, else the solutions would mix or spill. Another disadvantage was that a current had to be continually drawn to keep the two solutions from mixing by diffusion, so it was unsuitable for intermittent use.

Leclanché cell A 1912 illustration of a Leclanché cell

In 1866, Georges Leclanché invented a battery that consisted of a zinc anode and a manganese dioxide cathode wrapped in a porous material, dipped in a jar of ammonium chloride solution. The manganese dioxide cathode had a little carbon mixed into it as well, which improved conductivity and absorption. It provided a voltage of 1.4 volts. This cell achieved very quick success in telegraphy, signalling and electric bell work.

The dry cell form was used to power early telephones—usually from an adjacent wooden box affixed to the wall—before telephones could draw power from the telephone line itself. The Leclanché cell could not provide a sustained current for very long. In lengthy conversations, the battery would run down, rendering the conversation inaudible. This was because certain chemical reactions in the cell increased the internal resistance and, thus, lowered the voltage. These reactions reversed themselves when the battery was left idle, so it was good only for intermittent use.


Zinc-carbon cell, the first dry cell Many experimenters tried to immobilize the electrolyte of an electrochemical cell to make it more convenient to use. The Zamboni pile of 1812 was a high-voltage dry battery but capable of delivering only minute currents. Various experiments were made with cellulose, sawdust, spun glass, asbestos fibers, and gelatine.

In 1886, Carl Gassner obtained a German patent (No. 37,758) on a variant of the Leclanché cell, which came to be known as the dry cell because it did not have a free liquid electrolyte. Instead, the ammonium chloride was mixed with Plaster of Paris to create a paste, with a small amount of zinc chloride added in to extend the shelf life. The manganese dioxide cathode was dipped in this paste, and both were sealed in a zinc shell, which also acted as the anode. In November 1887, he obtained U.S. Patent 373,064 for the same device. Unlike previous wet cells, Gassner's dry cell was more solid, did not require maintenance, did not spill, and could be used in any orientation. It provided a potential of 1.5 volts.

The first mass-produced model was the Columbia dry cell, first marketed by the National Carbon Company in 1896. The NCC improved Gassner's model by replacing the plaster of Paris with coiled cardboard, an innovation that left more space for the cathode and made the battery easier to assemble. It was the first convenient battery for the masses and made portable electrical devices practical. The flashlight was invented that same year.

The zinc-carbon battery (as it came to be known) is still manufactured today.

In parallel, in 1887 Frederik Louis Wilhelm Hellesen developed his own dry cell design. It has been claimed that Hellesen's design preceded that of Gassner. In 1887, a dry-battery was developed by YaiSakizō (屋井先蔵) of Japan, then patented in 1892. In 1893, YaiSakizō's dry-battery was exhibited in World's Columbian Exposition and commanded considerable international attention.